History

             As the North of Thailand is mountainous with forest bordering Myanmar, Laos and China, hill tribes could move easily into Thailand along the borders. Their number is estimated to be around 5-600,000. The illegal entry created security problem as during that time the Communist threat was emminent. The Government realised this danger and set up projects for the welfare of hilltribes under the Public Welfare Department. The Public Relations Department was to employ radio broadcast , the most efficient media at the time , to reach the hilltribes . The US Government contributed 100 KW transmitting equipment and the Cities of Chiang Mai and Lamphun provided
Lands for the broadcasting station and the transmitting station respectively. The construction work was completed in July 1968 and was handed over to the Government of Thailand on July 31, 1968

   
The station began broadcasting unofficially on September 1968 and it was officially opened on July 14, 1968. Initially, the broadcasting was in 3 languages i.e. Mong, Yao and Karen. As of now, 7 languages are being broadcast i.e. Mong, Myan, Karen, Lahu, Lisu, Akha and Thai Yai.Radio for Hilltribes was the first of its kind in Asia and therefer was very well received with keen interest by many organizations, both Thai and foreign especially the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization who send official to visit the Station every year. The hill folks were excited to hear their own music from a place so far away from their homes through the radio. They often come to the Station to talk to announcers, to sing or send messages to their friends and relatives. The radio has become the popular media for sending message because of its reliability and dependability.่


THE ROYAL PROJECT AND THE RADIO FOR HILLTRIBES
The Royal Project was set up in 1969 by His Majesty the King with the objectives of helping hilltribes to earn their living by growing cash crops and fruit trees in place of their traditional opium growing. Radio for Hilltribes played the role of efficient communication with those folks to make them infomed of the activities in the Project. His Majesty the King graciously paid a royal private visit to the Station on January 12, 1971 to the delight of the staff of the Station’
OFFICIAL OPENING
Radio Thailand was officially opened on May 14, 1971
FOREIGN ASSISTANCE
1. US Government: Apart from the 100 KW transmitter, the US Government joined force with the Australian Government provided the service of a specialist in programme production for minorities from the Australian Broadcasting Corporation to train the staff to produce programme with quality.
   
  

2. COLUMBO PLAN
Staff from Radio Thailand Chiang Mai received training on programme production
and broadcasting with the Australian Broadcasting Corporation in 1970.



 
3. NARCOTICS AFFAIRS SECTION OF THE US. EMBASSY Financial assistance of 7,000,000 baht fo Hilltribes Radion for the acquisition of accessories for programme production and training of programme producers during 1987-1993.
EXPANSION
In 1995 the Public Relations Department installed a 50 KW transmitter with a frequency of 1476 MgH to replace the 100 KW and began transmitting with the new equipment since June 1, 1996. With the introduction of new technology and improved programme prodution, listeners can phone in to participate in talks, interviews etc. live.
The connection between our Mong Section and the Voice of the Hmong in Minnesota has made possible intercontinental exchange of news and information of various natures, making the programme most valuable.
Radio Thailand Chiang Mai AM 1476 KgH is now on Network 1

Began as English Language programme for the promotion of tourism and was officially opened on December 15, 1984. The English Language programme was on the air from 18.00-19.30 hrs. to recommend interesting places in Chiang Mai and neighbouring provinces, present news and other useful information. The English Language programme stopped broadcasting around the latter half of 1994 for lack of fund and was replaced with Thai Language programme. This is on Network 3 and has been awarded for social creativity in 2001   


History


Karen
                Karens forms the biggest number of hill-tribe population in Thailand, mainly settling down in provinces along Myanmar – Thailand border from Chiang Rai, Chiang Mai, Mae Hong Son, Tak all the way to Ratchaburi
and Prachuab Kiri Khan.Karens in Thailand are composed of 4 groups                                                      
- Sakho or Yang Khao who call themselves Pakayo which is the biggest group
- Po or Plong are mainly in Mae Hong Son, Chiang Mai and Lamphun              
- Pa-o or Tong-u in Mae Hong Son                                                                   
- Pave or Kaya alon in Mae Hong Son                                                              
Social Characteristics
         Single family, monogamy. Believe in virginity before marriage, violation of which will annoy the Spirit
and a ceremony of redeeming must be held in order to please the Spirit.Beliefs Karens have strong beliefs
     in Spirits. Some are Christian, while others are spirit worshippers. They either pray to God or worship Buddha



                 Musur or Lahu
    Originally from China, Myanmar and Laos, they settled down in 5 provinces of Thailand
i.e. Tak,Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Mae Hong Son and Kamphaeng Phet.Musur in Thailand comprises
- Red Musur (Lalu Yi)
     - Black Musur (Lahu Na)
           - Na Moey Musur (Sae Lae)
        - Yellow Musur (Lahu Shi)
Beliefs  Musur in Thailand strongly believe in Spirits, being different from those in Myanmar and Laos
who are mainly Christian and Buddhist. In Thailand, every Musur house has an altar with candles and josticks
to please the Spirits. They believe that their peace and properity, illness, crop damages are all at the mercy    
of the Spirits.
 Ceremonies .New Year Celebration is held to thank the gods who give them good living.           
Eating New Rice Ceremony is meant to ask permission from the gods to harvest. Family System
Monogamy. 
After marriage, the bridegroom lives with the bride’s family for a period of time before the couple leave            
 to live on their own.
                                                                                    




Meo or Hmong
        Meo who call themselves Hmong are a big ethnic minority, settling down in the South of China as well as
North Vietnam, Laos and Thailand. There are Hmongs in 11 provinces in Thailand i.e. Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai,
Nan, Phrae, Tak, Lampang, Phayao, Phetchabun, Mae Hong Son, Kamphaeng Phet and Sukhothai.               
Hmong in Thailand is composed of                                                                                                                       
- Blue Hmong, Green Hmong or Striped Hmong
- White Hmong                                                  
         - Kuam Na Hmong (recently immigrated into Thailand)
Social Characteristics
Hmongs live in a village of about 35 houses built on the ground. Family system is both single and
multiple with 2-20 members in a family.                                                                                                               
    Beliefs Hmongs, like other tribes, believe that ancestors to be the centre of everything in their lives.
  They believe that Phi Fa is the creator of the world and all things. House spirits protect and give them well-being,
while other spirits such as Phi Pa and Phi Kwai bring illness into the house. Therefore they are cautious not to
displease those spirits.                                                                                                                                         




 E-Kaw or Akha
         E-Kaws call themeselves Akha. They belong to the group which speak the languages of Thibet and
Myanmar and Lo-lo group. Originally they were independent and lived around the water-source of Tai Hua
        Sui in Thibet. Invaded by other groups, they moved southward to China, Myanmar, Laos and Thailand through
     Mae Sai District of Chiang Rai Province about 100 years ago and spread to other districts of Chiang Rai, and
also  Mae Ai District in Chiang Mai, as well as Lampang and Prae.                                                              
-  
E- Kaw comprises :
-  Hulo Akha             
 -  Lomiza Akha          
-  Mo-po Akha          
Social Characteristics and Family System
               E-Kaw family characteristics is multiple , When a son is married, he will bring his wife to live in the family,
in a small house built for each married son. When the father dies, the eldest son will become the head of the family.
Beliefs
Their beliefs are similar to those of other tribes. During the year, they have several ceremonies concerning spirits eg.
to pay respect, to feast, to rive away spirits. Ya-u-phi is a ceremony to please the head of the spirits who protect their village. Kha-yae-yae ceremony in the rainy season is meant to drive evil spirits out of the village. All those ceremonies
are conducted by “Je-mar” who is the village exorcist.                                                                                                 




Lisaw or Lisu
          Lisaws call themselves Lisu. Originally from the water-source of Salwin and MaeKhong Rivers towards
Northern Thibet and Southwest of Yunan in China, they emigrated to Thailand from the south of Chiang-tung
in Myanmar and spread to settle down in Chiang Rai, Chiang Mai, Payao, Mae Hong Son, Tak, Kamphaeng
Phet and Sukhothai. Two people are importance role for Lisu. Village healer who is the religious leader and   
          ceremony of the spirit. Excorcist who is a contact with the spirits and heal someone was illed for unknown cause .    



Yao or Mien
            Yao belongs to the group speaking Thibet-Chinese languages. They call themselves Mien, meaning
human-being while the Chinese call them Yao, meaning dog or barbarian. The majority of them live in South
China, mainly in  Kwang-si Province. Later some of them moved to Yunan, Tonkin, North Vietnam,Laos     
    and Thailand.Yaos in Thailand are mainly from Nam-tha Province in Laos. They settle down in the Southwest
of Chiang Rai. Some go to Chiang Mai, Lampang and Nan.                                                                          
Social characteristics
Their family system is both single and multiple. The family enlarges through the sons who, when married ,
will bring their wives to live with their parents.                                                                                               
Beliefs
Yaos believe in God creating all things. They also believe that spirits, good and evil ones, are omnipresent.
The most important of all are “ Phi Yai “ , consisting of 18 spirits with descending order in ranks . Three of
    Eighteen Spirits called Fam Sing or Three Stars have the highest power . They also worship their ancestors ,
having in every house an altar for the spirits of their ancestors to take rest while being invited to come to
perform ceremonics .                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                            

 




ผังรายการ
ความถี่ AM. 1476 KHz

เวลา
จันทร์
อังคาร
พุธ
พฤหัสบดี
ศุกร์
เสาร์
อาทิตย์
04.45-05.00น.
ทดลองเครื่องส่ง-เปิดสถานี-แจ้งรายการ
05.00-06.00น.
ภาษาม้ง
06.00-07.00น.
ภาษาเมี่ยน
07.00-07.30น.
ถ่ายทอดข่าวจาก สวท.891 กทม.
07.30-08.00น.
ภาษาลีซู
08.00-08.30น.
ภาษาอาข่า
สถาบัน
พระมหากษัตริย์
ปาฎกถาธรรม
08.30-09.00น.
ภาษากระเหรี่ยง

สถาบัน
พระมหากษัตริย์

09.00-09.30น.
ภาษากระเหรี่ยง
09.30-10.00น.
ภาษาลาหู่
11.00-11.00น.
ภาษาไทยใหญ่
11.00-11.10น.
ถ่ายทอดข่าวจาก สวท.891 กทม.
11.10-12.00น.

มองบ้านมองเมือง สวท.กรุงเทพ

กฏหมายชาวบ้าน
รู้ไว้ได้ประโยชน์
12.00-13.00น.

ถ่ายทอดข่าวจาก สวท.891 กทม.

13.10-14.00น.
ที่นี่คลังเพลง สวท.กรุงเทพ
14.00-14.10น.
ถ่ายทอดข่าวจาก สวท.891 กทม.
14.10-15.00น.
คุณภาพชีวิต
ชั่วโมงเสมอภาค
ร่วมด้วยช่วยเด็ก
15.10-16.00น.
เสียงคนตาบอด
16.00-17.00น.
ภาษาเมี่ยน
17.00-18.00น.
ภาษาม้ง
18.00-19.00น.
ภาษากระเหรี่ยง
19.00-19.30น.
ถ่ายทอดข่าวจาก สวท.891 กทม.
19.30-20.00น.
ภาษาลีซู
20.00-20.30น.
ถ่ายทอดข่าวจาก สวท.891 กทม.
20.30-21.00น.
ภาษาลาหู่
21.00-22.00น.
ภาษาอาข่า
22.00-23.00น.
ภาษาไทยใหญ่
23.00น.
ปิดสถานี



สัดส่วนของ A.M.1476 KHz.


วันธรรมดา

      รายการภาษาไทย      36.10%
      รายการภาษาชาวเขา 63.91%

วันเสาร์ - อาทิตย์

       รายการภาษาไทย      41.70%
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